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J Educ Eval Health Prof > Epub ahead of print
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2020; 17: 41.
Published online December 14, 2020.
[Epub ahead of print]
Development and validation of a measurement scale for nursing students’ readiness to the flipped classroom in Sri Lanka
Punithalingam Youhasan1,2  , Yan Chen1  , Mataroria Lyndon1  , Marcus A. Henning1 
1Centre for Medical and Health Science Education, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland , New Zealand
2Department of Medical Education & Research, Faculty of Health-Care Sciences, Eastern University, Sri Lanka, Batticaloa, Sri Lanka
Correspondence  Punithalingam Youhasan ,Email:
Editor:  Sun Huh, Hallym University, Korea
Submitted: November 13, 2020  Accepted after revision: December 14, 2020
It aims to develop and validate a scale to measure nursing students’ readiness to the flipped classroom in Sri Lanka.
A literature review provided the theoretical framework for developing the Nursing Students’ Readiness for Flipped Classroom (NSR-FC) questionnaire. Five content experts evaluated the NSR-FC, and content validity indices were calculated. Cross-sectional surveys among 355 undergraduate nursing students from 3 state Sri Lankan universities were carried out to assess the psychometric properties of the NSR-FC. Principal component analysis (PCA, n = 265), internal consistency (through Cronbach's alpha, n = 265), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n = 90) were done for construction validity and reliability test.
There were 37 items included in the NSR-FC for content validation and resulting in an average scale content validity index (S-CVI/AVE) of 0.94. Two items received item level content validity index (I-CVI) less than 0.78. The factor structures of the 35 items were explored through PCA with orthogonal factor rotation culminating in the identification of 5 factors. These factors were classified as technology readiness, environmental readiness, personal readiness, pedagogical readiness, and interpersonal readiness. The NSR-FC also showed an overall acceptable level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.9). The CFA verified a 4-factor model (excluding the interpersonal readiness factor) and 20 items achieved acceptable levels of acceptance (SRMR=0.08, RMSEA=0.08, CFI=0.87 and χ2 /df =1.57).
The NSR-FC, as a four-factor model, is an acceptable measurement scale for nursing students’ readiness to the flipped classroom in terms of its construct validity and reliability.
Keywords: Nursing education; Psychometrics; Reproducibility of results; Statistical factor analysis; Sri Lanka
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