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The relationship of non-cognitive factors to academic and clinical performance in graduate rehabilitation science students in the United States: a systematic review  
Kelly Reynolds, Caroline Bazemore, Cannon Hanebuth, Steph Hendren, Maggie Horn
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2021;18:31.   Published online November 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.31
  • 5,717 View
  • 262 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Rehabilitation science programs utilize cognitive and non-cognitive factors to select students who can complete the didactic and clinical portions of the program and pass the licensure exam. Cognitive factors such a prior grade point average and standardized test scores are known to be predictive of academic performance, but the relationship of non-cognitive factors and performance is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore the relationship of non-cognitive factors to academic and clinical performance in rehabilitation science programs.
Methods
A search of 7 databases was conducted using the following eligibility criteria: graduate programs in physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, United States-based programs, measurement of at least 1 non-cognitive factor, measurement of academic and/or clinical performance, and quantitative reporting of results. Articles were screened by title, abstract, and full text, and data were extracted.
Results
After the comprehensive screening, 21 articles were included in the review. Seventy-six percent of studies occurred in PT students. Grit, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and stress were the most commonly studied factors. Only self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and personality traits were examined in clinical and academic contexts. The results were mixed for all non-cognitive factors. Higher grit and self-efficacy tended to be associated with better performance, while stress was generally associated with worse outcomes.
Conclusion
No single non-cognitive factor was consistently related to clinical or academic performance in rehabilitation science students. There is insufficient evidence currently to recommend the evaluation of a specific non-cognitive factor for admissions decisions.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Kelly Reynolds, Shani Mueller, Maggie Horn
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    Jian Li, Eryong Xue, Chenchang Li, Yunshu He
    Behavioral Sciences.2023; 13(7): 555.     CrossRef
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    Rasha Kadri Ibrahim, Aisha Namshan Aldawsari
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    Roman A. Dormidontov
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Research Articles
How to encourage intrinsic motivation in the clinical teaching environment?: a systematic review from the self-determination theory  
Cesar Orsini, Phillip Evans, Oscar Jerez
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2015;12:8.   Published online April 8, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2015.12.8
  • 51,561 View
  • 544 Download
  • 68 Web of Science
  • 70 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Internalization of students’ motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. Methods: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more ‘human centred’ teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. Conclusion: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students’ self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.

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Learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia  
Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad, Rogayah Ja’afar
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2014;11:30.   Published online November 24, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2014.11.30
  • 27,633 View
  • 191 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Learning style preferences vary within the nursing field and there is no consensus on a predominant learning style preference in nursing students. The current study compared the learning style preferences of nursing students at two universities in Iran and Malaysia. Methods: A purposive sampling method was used to collect data from the two study populations. Data were collected using the Learning Style Scale (LSS), which is a valid and reliable inventory. The LSS consists of 22 items with five subscales including perceptive, solitary, analytic, imaginative, and competitive. The questionnaires were distributed at the end of the academic year during regular class time for optimum response. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the learning style preferences between the two study populations. Results: A significant difference was found in perceptive, solitary, and analytic learning styles between two groups of nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in imaginative and competitive learning styles between the two groups. Most of the students were in the middle range of the learning styles. Conclusion: There were similarities and differences in learning style preferences between Zabol Medical Sciences University (ZBMU) and University Sains Malaysia (USM) nursing students. The USM nursing students were more sociable and analytic learners, whereas the ZBMU nursing students were more solitary and perceptive learners.

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Medical students’ achievement on the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery/Chirurgery Final Part I and II licensing examination: a comparison of students in problem-based learning, community-based education and service, and conventional curricula in Ghana  
Victor Mogre, Anthony Amalba, Mark Saaka, Kwabena Kyei-Aboagye
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2014;11:10.   Published online May 8, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2014.11.10
  • 31,483 View
  • 150 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Problem-based learning is an established method of teaching and learning in medical education. However, its impact on students’ achievement on examinations is varied and inconsistent. We compared the levels of achievement on the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery/Chirurgery (MB ChB) Part I and II licensing examination of students in problem-based learning, community-based education and service (PBL/COBES), and conventional curricula.
Methods
In 2014, we analyzed the MB ChB Final Part I and II licensing examination results of students in three classes (2004, 2005, and 2006) of the School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. Ninety-three students in the 2004 and 2005 cohorts followed a conventional curriculum, and 82 students in the 2006 cohort followed a PBL/COBES curriculum. Using appropriate statistical tools, the analysis compared individual discipline scores and the proportions of students who received distinction/credit/pass grades among the classes.
Results
The PBL students had significantly higher mean and median scores than the conventional students in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Internal Medicine, Community Health and Family Medicine, Surgery, and Psychiatry, but not in Child Health and Pediatrics. Also, a significantly (P=0.0010) higher percentage, 95.1% (n=78), of the PBL students passed all the disciplines, compared to 79.6% (n=74) of the conventional students.
Conclusion
The PBL students significantly performed better in all the disciplines except child health and pediatrics, where the conventional students scored higher. These findings demonstrate that the benefits of the PBL/COBES curriculum are tangible and should be fostered.

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JEEHP : Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions