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Kazuki Hirao 3 Articles
Changes in flow experience among occupational therapy students: a 1-year longitudinal study  
Kazuki Hirao
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2014;11:14.   Published online July 7, 2014
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  • 144 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this 1-year longitudinal study is to investigate the change in flow experience among occupational therapy students (OTS). Methods: In December 2012, we prospectively recruited 97 OTS from the Department of Occupational Therapy, Kibi International University. To assess flow experience in daily life, we used the Flow Experience Checklist. Results: The dataset included 87 OTS, of which 75 participated in the assessment at 1 year (follow-up rate, 86.2%). The mean age at baseline of 45 male and 30 female OTS was 19.59±1.1 years (range, 18 to 24 years). A comparison of the ‘frequency of flow experience’ showed significant differences between baseline values and those after 1 year (December 2013) among male OTS (P<0.05). Conclusion: The present results indicate that, for male OTS, the frequency of flow was significantly reduced after 1 year compared with baseline values. This finding suggests the need for further education to increase the frequency of flow among male OTS.
Prefrontal hemodynamic responses and the degree of flow experience among occupational therapy students during their performance of a cognitive task  
Kazuki Hirao
J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2014;11:24.   Published online September 30, 2014
  • 27,750 View
  • 186 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although flow experience is positively associated with motivation to learn, the biological basis of flow experience is poorly understood. Accumulation of evidence on the underlying brain mechanisms related to flow is necessary for a deeper understanding of the motivation to learn. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between flow experience and brain function using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during the performance of a cognitive task. Methods: Sixty right-handed occupational therapy (OT) students participated in this study. These students performed a verbal fluency test (VFT) while 2-channel NIRS was used to assess changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (oxygenated hemoglobin [oxy-Hb]) in the prefrontal cortex. Soon after that, the OT students answered the flow questionnaire (FQ) to assess the degree of flow experience during the VFT. Results: Average oxy-Hb in the prefrontal cortex had a significant negative correlation with the satisfaction scores on the FQ. Conclusion: Satisfaction during the flow experience correlated with prefrontal hemodynamic suppression. This finding may assist in understanding motivation to learn and related flow experience.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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  • The brain in flow: A systematic review on the neural basis of the flow state
    Clara Alameda, Daniel Sanabria, Luis F. Ciria
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  • A neurocognitive model of flow states and the role of cerebellar internal models
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    Behavioural Brain Research.2021; 407: 113244.     CrossRef
  • Prefrontal cortex hypoactivity distinguishes severe from mild-to-moderate social anxiety as revealed by a palm-sized near-infrared spectroscopy system
    Hiroyuki Uchida, Kazuki Hirao
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2020; 127(9): 1305.     CrossRef
  • A Review on the Role of the Neuroscience of Flow States in the Modern World
    Joshua Gold, Joseph Ciorciari
    Behavioral Sciences.2020; 10(9): 137.     CrossRef

JEEHP : Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions